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Original Research

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Cancer screening behaviors and health literacy levels of women aged 30 and over in the northwest Turkey

  • Ülfiye Çelikkalp1,*,
  • Aylin Yalçın Irmak2

1Department of Public Health, Trakya University School of Medicine, 22030 Edirne, Turkey

2Department of Nursing, Health High School, Namık Kemal University, 59100 Tekirdağ, Turkey

DOI: 10.22514/ejgo.2024.015 Vol.45,Issue 1,February 2024 pp.96-105

Submitted: 24 August 2023 Accepted: 26 September 2023

Published: 15 February 2024

*Corresponding Author(s): Ülfiye Çelikkalp E-mail:



The aim of this study was to determine the cancer screening behaviors and the associated factors of women aged 30 years and older during the Covid-19 pandemic period. The study was carried out as a cross-sectional study with 301 women aged 30 years and older in Edirne, which is a border province in northwestern Turkiye. The data was collected via using the Personal Information Form and the and Turkiye Health Literacy Scale-32 (THL-32). In the statistical analysis, the number, percentage, mean, standard deviation, chi-square test, pearson correlation analysis and multivariate binary logistic regression analysis were used. The mean age of the participants is 43.66 ± 9.02 years. 74.8% of the women had not undergone any screening tests during the pandemic, and 80.7% of them displayed limited and inadequate health literacy levels. 21.9% of women aged 30 and over received Pap smear screening, 22.3% of women aged 40 and over underwent mammography, and 16.7% of women aged 50 and over had screening colonoscopy. Based on the results of multivariate regression analysis, those with adequate health literacy (Odds Ratio (OR): 4.421, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.114–17.539), those who had undergone breast examination performed by a physician (OR: 22.761, 95% CI: 5.930–87.364), and those who participated in papsmear screening (OR: 4.509, 95% CI: 1.605–12.672) were more likely to participate in mammography screening. Women who had a breast examination performed by a physician were also more likely to participate in pap-smear screening (OR: 1.139, 95% CI: 1.074–1.965) and colonoscopy screening (OR: 7.924, 95% CI: 2.384–26.375). The research group showed low levels of participation in cancer screening tests and low levels of health literacy. It is necessary to conduct more awareness-raising campaigns for target groups to encourage them to participate in the screening programs and to improve their health literacy.


Covid-19; Women; Cancer screening; Health literacy

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Ülfiye Çelikkalp,Aylin Yalçın Irmak. Cancer screening behaviors and health literacy levels of women aged 30 and over in the northwest Turkey. European Journal of Gynaecological Oncology. 2024. 45(1);96-105.


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