Article Data

  • Views 778
  • Dowloads 140

Original Research

Open Access

Incidence trends of germ cell-gonadal tumors among the pediatric population in Turkey and its importance through the eye of gynecologist

  • Irem Alyazici Kucukyildiz1,*,
  • Murat Gultekin2

1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sivas Cumhuriyet University School of Medicine, 58140 Sivas, Turkey

2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, 06230 Ankara, Turkey

DOI: 10.31083/j.ejgo.2021.01.2226 Vol.42,Issue 1,February 2021 pp.81-84

Submitted: 23 August 2020 Accepted: 12 October 2020

Published: 15 February 2021

*Corresponding Author(s): Irem Alyazici Kucukyildiz E-mail:


Objective: Childhood cancers constitute a major part of childhood diseases and are an important cause of mortality. Germ cell and gonadal tumors are among the top ten cancers in both boys and girls during childhood. Furthermore, the most common locations of germ cell tumors in the female population under the age of 20 are the ovaries. And germ cell tumors are the most common type of ovarian cancer, in these population. The purpose of this study was to explore the incidence trends of chilldhood germ cell and gonadal tumors in Turkey and to compare them with those worldwide. And also emphasizes the importance of the approach to the treatment of this cancer in girls. Methods: This study is based on data from the Turkish National Cancer Statistics Reports and the International Incidence of 10 Childhood Cancer (IICC) collaborative Project. Results: The age specific incidence rates (ASR) of germ cell tumors is 5 per million in Turkey and 4,9 per million across the world. The percentage of germ cell tumors among all childhood cancers in Turkey is 2%-4% in boys and 3,2%-5% in girls. Conclusion: Although germ cell and gonadal tumors are among the top ten cancers observed in childhood, their incidence is low. The survival rates of these cancers are very high if they are diagnosed early and accurately. Thus, knowledge about the trends of these cancers will increase the awareness and success in the diagnosis and treatment of germ cell and gonadal tumors.


Germ cell-gonadal tumors; Girls; Childhood; Turkey

Cite and Share

Irem Alyazici Kucukyildiz,Murat Gultekin. Incidence trends of germ cell-gonadal tumors among the pediatric population in Turkey and its importance through the eye of gynecologist. European Journal of Gynaecological Oncology. 2021. 42(1);81-84.


[1] Ferlay J, Colombet M, Soerjomataram I, Mathers C, Parkin DM, Piñeros M, et al. Estimating the global cancer incidence and mortality in 2018: GLOBOCAN sources and methods. International Journal of Cancer. 2019; 144: 1941-1953.

[2] Steliarova-Foucher E, Colombet M, Ries LAG, Moreno F, Dolya A, Bray F, et al. International incidence of childhood cancer, 2001-10: a population-based registry study. The Lancet Oncology. 2017; 18: 719-731.

[3] Kramárová E, Stiller CA. The international classification of childhood cancer. International Journal of Cancer. 1996; 68: 759-765.

[4] von Allmen D. Malignant lesions of the ovary in childhood. Seminars in Pediatric Surgery. 2005; 14: 100-105.

[5] Breen JL, Neubecker RD. Ovarian malignancy in children, with special reference to the germ-cell tumors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1967; 142: 658-674.

[6] Fotiou SK. Ovarian malignancies in adolescence. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1997; 816: 338-342.

[7] Ribeiro RC, Pui C. Saving the children-improving childhood cancer treatment in developing countries. New England Journal of Medicine. 2005; 352: 2158-2160.

[8] Rodriguez-Galindo C, Friedrich P, Alcasabas P, Antillon F, Banavali S, Castillo L, et al. Toward the cure of all children with cancer through collaborative efforts: pediatric oncology as a global challenge. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2015; 33: 3065-3073.

[9] Thomson AB, Critchley HOD, Kelnar CJH, Wallace WHB. Late reproductive sequelae following treatment of childhood cancer and options for fertility preservation. Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2002; 16: 311-334.

[10] Keskinkılıc B, Gültekin M, Akarca AS, Ozturk C, Boztas G, Karaca MZ, et al. Turkey cancer control programme. The Ministry of Health of Turkey. 2016. Ankara.

[11] Kaatsch P, Häfner C, Calaminus G, Blettner M, Tulla M. Pediatric germ cell tumors from 1987 to 2011: incidence rates, time trends, and survival. Pediatrics. 2015; 135: e136-e143.

[12] Katanoda K, Shibata A, Matsuda T, Hori M, Nakata K, Narita Y, et al. Childhood, adolescent and young adult cancer incidence in Japan in 2009-2011. Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2017; 47: 762-771.

[13] Kramárová E, Mann JR, Magnani C, Corraziari I, Berrino F. Sur-vival of children with malignant germ cell, trophoblastic and other gonadal tumours in Europe. European Journal of Cancer. 2001; 37: 750- 759.

[14] Ward ZJ, Yeh JM, Bhakta N, Frazier AL, Girardi F, Atun R. Global childhood cancer survival estimates and priority-setting: a simulation-based analysis. The Lancet Oncology. 2019; 20: 972-983.

[15] Baert T, Storme N, Van Nieuwenhuysen E, Uyttebroeck A, Van Damme N, Vergote I, et al. Ovarian cancer in children and adoles-cents: a rare disease that needs more attention. Maturitas. 2016; 88: 3-8.

[16] Yeap S, Hsiao C, Hsieh C, Yu H, Chen Y, Chuang J, et al. Pedi-atric malignant ovarian tumors: 15 years of experience at a single institution. Pediatrics & Neonatology. 2011; 52: 140-144.

Abstracted / indexed in

Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch) Created as SCI in 1964, Science Citation Index Expanded now indexes over 9,500 of the world’s most impactful journals across 178 scientific disciplines. More than 53 million records and 1.18 billion cited references date back from 1900 to present.

Biological Abstracts Easily discover critical journal coverage of the life sciences with Biological Abstracts, produced by the Web of Science Group, with topics ranging from botany to microbiology to pharmacology. Including BIOSIS indexing and MeSH terms, specialized indexing in Biological Abstracts helps you to discover more accurate, context-sensitive results.

Google Scholar Google Scholar is a freely accessible web search engine that indexes the full text or metadata of scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats and disciplines.

JournalSeek Genamics JournalSeek is the largest completely categorized database of freely available journal information available on the internet. The database presently contains 39226 titles. Journal information includes the description (aims and scope), journal abbreviation, journal homepage link, subject category and ISSN.

Current Contents - Clinical Medicine Current Contents - Clinical Medicine provides easy access to complete tables of contents, abstracts, bibliographic information and all other significant items in recently published issues from over 1,000 leading journals in clinical medicine.

BIOSIS Previews BIOSIS Previews is an English-language, bibliographic database service, with abstracts and citation indexing. It is part of Clarivate Analytics Web of Science suite. BIOSIS Previews indexes data from 1926 to the present.

Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition aims to evaluate a journal’s value from multiple perspectives including the journal impact factor, descriptive data about a journal’s open access content as well as contributing authors, and provide readers a transparent and publisher-neutral data & statistics information about the journal.

Submission Turnaround Time